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B Negative Blood Type

B Negative Blood Type

B negative blood type is pretty rare, comprising only 2% of the world population. Here are a few facts about this blood type.
Ashwini Kulkarni Sule
Last Updated: Jun 3, 2018
It was in 1818 that a British obstetrician, James Blundell, performed the first successful transfusion of human blood while treating a patient affected by postpartum hemorrhage. However, the concerns regarding the safety of blood transfusions were addressed when Karl Landsteiner came up with the classification of blood types in four main blood groups in 1901.
Understanding Blood Groups
There are about 29 different human blood group systems that are recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion. However, ABO system remains the most significant blood group system. A person is classified as having A, B, O, AB type blood depending upon the antigen present on the RBCs. If antigen A is present, then a person has blood group A. Similarly, one's blood group is identified ad B, if antigen B is present. If both the antigens are present, then the person's blood group is AB, while absence of either antigens denotes blood group O.

ABO blood typing is often combined with Rhesus blood group system. Rhesus or Rh system is concerned with the presence of antigen D on RBCs. Thus, if Rh(D) is present in a person along with his ABO blood type, he is considered to be of Rh positive blood type. Similarly, absence of Rh(D) indicates an Rh negative blood type. Thus, the human population is widely classified into A+, A-, B+, B-, O+, O-, AB+ and AB-.
B Negative Blood Type
Now that you know the basics of blood group typing, it would be easier to understand, what B negative blood type signifies. Simply put, it indicates presence of antigen B without antigen Rh(D). Generally speaking, negative blood types are rarer than the positive ones. B negative blood type is second rare, with AB- being the rarest. The race and ethnicity of a person also plays a vital role in determining the blood group of a person. Caucasian population has the highest percentage of B negative blood group when compared with other races.
Risks
Apart from the fact that type B negative blood is rare, there are certain other risks involved. These risks are peculiar to all the negative blood groups. The main risk is during pregnancy, when the mother is Rh- and the fetus is Rh+. Human body has a tendency to build antibodies against anything that is foreign to our body. Naturally, baby's blood is no exception as it comprises antigens from the father (which are foreign to the mother's body). In response to these antigens, the immune system builds antibodies of type IgG and IgM. The antibodies for the major blood groups ABO are of type IgM while those for Rh(D) are of type IgG. The antibodies of type IgM are large and cannot be transported through placenta, all the way to the baby. However, type IgG antibodies easily enter the placenta and are transferred to the baby, to attack his antigens. This can induce some risks for the baby, during the pregnancy and the mother, after the childbirth. These risk factors can be minimized by immunizing the mother with IgG antibodies in the third trimester of pregnancy.
B Negative Blood Type and Blood Donation
B negative blood type people can only receive blood from either their own blood type donors or O negative donors. People with this blood type benefit the most from double red cell donation type. It allows two units of double red blood cells to be donated at a time. Also, it is necessary to match the race and ethnicity of the donor and the recipient while donation.
These days, diet based on blood group types is gaining popularity. Thus, if you are a B negative person, you sure would want to know about which diet suits your blood type the best. People with this blood type can benefit from eating meat and dairy products, while chicken and bacon should be avoided. Make the best of this information to attain a healthy lifestyle.