For dealing with natural disasters, military emergencies, and other situations that may arise in high risk professions, you need to have a disaster preparedness kit ready. Also known as a survival kit, this kit helps in increasing the chances of survival of those who are exposed to a disaster. This kit contains a collection of tools and applications which help in coping with a dire situation. In high-end jobs, such kits are prepared in advance. Using these kits needs a lot of training, and special drills are conducted in this regard, especially in the armed forces. The contents of this kit differ slightly depending on a particular situation and the profession that they are used in.
The General Contents
A first aid kit is extremely crucial in emergency situations. This kit normally includes bandages, sterile pads and gauze, first aid tape, tweezers, surgical razors, disinfectant pads, oxytetracycline tablets for diarrhea and infection, and aspirin. Make sure that the kit is properly protected from water as it can be rendered useless if it comes in contact with the same. Amongst these things, other things that can be included in the kit include an insect repellent, hand sanitizer, soap, salt, toilet papers, female hygiene products, prescribed medicines, hydrogen peroxide, antihistamines, and epinephrine (especially for protection against insect stings).
Food and Liquids
The supply of water should last for a minimum of 2 days. If you run out of water, and you happen to collect the water from a spring or a stream, it needs to be boiled. Make sure that there is a container to boil the water. And in case that is not available, you need to have iodine or chlorine tablets. Canned food, fishing gear, and water purification tablets are a few other things you need to carry. Another very important thing is money--small denominations of these are handy in any given situation.
The shelter and/or warmth issue needs to be given a great deal of importance as well, as this could turn into a life-threatening one. If it's too cold, it could prove to be fatal. To prevent freezing, you need a survival blanket, 'tube tent' or bivvy bag, tarp with grommets or tie-tapes (ideal if they are made of nylon or polyester), large plastic trash bag to be used as a poncho or expedient shelter roof, mosquito net to keep off biting insects, wide-brimmed hat, knitted or fleece 'watch cap' to insulate the area of greatest heat loss, and a magnifying glass for starting a fire. Also include a ferrocerium rod (AKA 'Metal match', 'Hot Spark', 'Firesteel', 'Magnesium bar') and a fire striker for starting a fire. Other than these, the other equipment that can come in handy for starting a fire include waterproof matches, butane lighters (won't work under freezing temperatures, it needs to be carried inside clothing), hexamine fuel tablets (Esbit) or 'heat tablets', cotton pads or balls smeared with white petroleum (can be carried in 35 mm container or inside a heat-sealed, large-diameter plastic straw), and dark-colored (preferably black) shoe polish.
In a situation where you lose your way or there is a possibility of losing your way, it is a good idea to have a compass, red flare, or a smoke signal flare to indicate your location to a passing ship, a chopper or a plane. A radio transceiver or a ham radio and GPS navigation can be really advantageous as well.
These are the things which need to be included in a disaster preparedness kit. As mentioned earlier, the armed forces and espionage agencies may have several other advanced equipment and tools, as well as an advanced technology than the ones mentioned above.
Take all the precautions that you would need to and the first thing to consider in any emergency is the protection of lives. Other things are merely secondary.